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Kết nối vùng, kết nối lưu vực để một Hội An phát triển bền vững

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Friday, 27 November 2015 08:39 Hits:10626

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Theo dòng thời gian, Hội An đã từng và đang là nơi hội ngộ của du khách từ Tây sang Đông của cả hai miền Bắc và Nam bán cầu đến giao lưu, buôn bán, làm ăn, sinh sống, viếng thăm. Theo lớp không gian, Hội An cũng đã từng và đang là nơi gặp nhau của các nguồn tài nguyên sinh vật từ thượng nguồn đến hạ lưu, từ biển khơi đến lục địa và theo dọc vùng bờ đến trú đông, kết bạn, sinh sống, hoặc duy trì nòi giống. Con người và thiên nhiên đã từng và dường như đang “hội ngộ” tại Hội An – một vùng cửa sông và ven bờ trù phú của dòng sông Thu Bồn, làm nên sự đa dạng và độc đáo của một Di sản Văn hóa Thế giới, và một Khu Dự trữ Sinh quyển cho mai sau. Trong những năm qua, chúng ta đã và đang khai thác thế mạnh này và kết quả Hội An cũng đã và đang mạnh và giàu lên từng ngày, làm rạng rở một đô thị cổ xinh đẹp, quyến rũ và tiếng vang khắp thế giới. Tuy nhiên, để một Hội An phát triển bền vững, chúng ta cần phải bảo tồn và phát triển sự “hội ngộ” ấy, hội ngộ của con người và hội ngộ của thiên nhiên. Bài trình bày thảo luận về một trong những giải pháp nhằm góp phần hỗ trợ cho bảo tồn và phát triển sự “hội ngộ” để một Hội An phát triển bền vững.

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Cộng đồng Thôn Bãi Hương thực hiện thành công dự án phục hồi san hô cứng

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Monday, 17 August 2015 14:39 Hits:7492

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1. Giới thiệu sơ bộ về dự án:

Ban quản lý Khu bảo tồn biển Cù Lao Chàm phối hợp (BQL) với Uỷ ban nhân nhân xã Tân Hiệp (UBND) và Tiểu khu đồng quản lý bảo tồn biển thôn Bãi Hương (Tiểu khu) đã thực hiện hiệu quả dự án: “Xây dựng cơ chế quản lý rạn san hô và thực hiện thí điểm phục hồi 2000 m2 san hô cứng có sự tham gia của cộng đồng tại thôn Bãi Hương, xã Tân Hiệp (Cù Lao Chàm), thành phố Hội An, tỉnh Quảng Nam” với sự tài trợ của Chương trình rừng ngập mặn cho tương lai (MFF) - Tổ chức Bảo tồn thiên nhiên quốc tế (IUCN) từ tháng 12/2013 đến tháng 5/2015. Qua 18 tháng triển khai, đến nay dự án đã kết thúc và đạt được một số kết quả đáng ghi nhận

2. Về mục tiêu dài hạn và ngắn hạn của dự án

2.1 Mục tiêu dài hạn:

''Tăng độ phủ rạn san hô tại vùng biển Cù Lao Chàm", mục tiêu này cũng góp phần vào chương trình hành động của MFF là quan tâm đến các Khu bảo tồn biển.

2.2 Mục tiêu ngắn hạn của dự án: 2000 m2 rạn san hô tại Bãi Hương - Cù Lao Chàm được phục hồi sinh thái và được bảo vệ với sự tham gia của cộng đồng.

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Điều tra nhận thức của cộng đồng về hoạt động bảo vệ và khai thác bền vững cua đá (Gecarcoidea lalandii) Tại Cù Lao Chàm, Tp. Hội An

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Monday, 29 June 2015 09:40 Hits:19734

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TÓM TẮT

Cua Đá (Gecarcoidea lalandii) tại Cù Lao Chàm là loài động vật biển quan trọng, đóng góp đáng kể vào sinh kế của người dân địa phương. Tuy nhiên, do sức ép của nhu cầu tiêu thụ từ du lịch, cua Đá đang dần bị khai thác kiệt quệ. Để khắc phục tình trạng này, chính quyền địa phương Cù Lao Chàm đã triển khai hoạt động bảo vệ và khai thác bền vững cua Đá dựa vào cộng đồng. Đánh giá mức độ nhận thức cộng đồng đã trở thành nhu cầu cấp thiết giúp cộng đồng tham gia vào công tác bảo tồn tại địa phương. Bài báo phản ánh mức độ nhận thức của cộng đồng người dân về hoạt động bảo vệ và khai thác bền vững cua Đá (Gecarcoidea lalandii) tại Cù Lao Chàm. Đồng thời, các biện pháp nâng cao nhận thức cộng đồng trong công tác bảo tồn cũng được thảo luận và đề xuất.

ABSTRACT

Cham Islands Land crab (Gecarcoidea lalandii) is a flagship species, which has been contributed significantly into livelihood improvement for local people. However, Cham Islands land crab population and individual size provided are facing seriously in smaller within tourism demands. In order to deal with this situation, the Cham Islands commune has organized and operated activities on community based land crab conservation and sustainable use. Analyzation and assessment of community awareness on these land crab initials are needed in supporting participatory conservation. The article reflects Cham Islands community knowledge on the land crab (Gecarcoidea lalandii) on the Cham Islands. Moreover, solutions on public awareness raising on these conservation activities have been discussed.

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Hiện trạng khai thác và sử dụng nguồn lợi bào ngư tại Cù Lao Chàm, Hội An, Quảng Nam

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Thursday, 18 December 2014 09:36 Hits:8587

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Tóm tắt

Bào ngư là một loại hải sản có giá trị dinh dưỡng cao, được nhiều người biết đến như là loại thực phẩm bổ dưỡng. Ngoài ra, do cấu tạo vỏ có tầng xà cừ óng ánh với nhiều màu sắc, nên bào ngư còn được sử dụng làm đồ trang sức, khảm xà cừ trong kỹ nghệ tranh sơn mài. Bào ngư phân bố hầu hết ven các đảo của Cù Lao Chàm và là loại đặc sản ưa chuộng của du khách đang bị khai thác quá mức trong những năm qua và hiện nay. Bài báo phản ảnh hiện trạng và các giải pháp khai thác, sử dụng hợp lí nguồn lợi bào ngư này tại địa phương. Đồng thời thành phần loài, phân bố theo các đặc điểm sinh thái của bào ngư tại Cù Lao Chàm cũng được đề cập.

Abstract

Abalone is high nutritional value seafood, which is well known as nutritious foods. In additional, colorful iridescent nacre layer structured abalone shell is used as jewelry, pearl inlaid in the lacquer industry. Abalone is distributed in the coast along most Cham islands, is tourists favored specialty, but is recently being overexploited. The paper indicated the exploiting status and proposed solutions for Abalone resource reasonable exploitation and use as well as addressed species composition and their ecological distribution in the Cham islands waters.

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Building Resilience in Hoi An city, Vietnam through the Cham Islands Marine Protected Area

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Thursday, 06 November 2014 14:50 Hits:17879

ABSTRACT

In 2009, Hoi An officially declared its vision to become an eco-city by 2030, in the form of Hoi An eco-city strategy (UBND Hoi An, 2009). As part of this eco-city strategy, Hoi An has launched over forty different projects. A significant program towards resilience-building in Hoi An is the development of the Cham Islands Marine Protected Area (MPA), as well as the Biosphere Reserve. Establishment of the MPA and Biosphere Reserve aims to build long-term resilience in the face of climate change and extreme weather events. The protection and sustainable management of natural resources increases the capacity of the environment to cope with natural hazards and also decreases human vulnerability. This paper aims to describe how Hoi An came to support actions for mitigating climate change impacts and reducing disasters risk through the MPA establishment and management, as well as biosphere reserve criteria adoption process. The case study will focus on what the benefits have been, challenges local people face, as well as lessons learned from past experiences.

1. INTRODUCTION

Hoi An city is located in the Vu Gia –Thu Bon estuary (Figure 1), which empties into the Pacific Ocean. Its economy is based on its natural resources, such as fisheries, agriculture and tourism, all of which are severely affected by disasters and climate change impacts (Trinh, 2011b). The most significant stresses the city faces include nautral hazards such as floods, typhoons, saline intrusion, coastal/riverbank erosion, and environmental and natural resource degradation. Regular floods during the rainy season incapacitate the city as people are unable to move around on the streets, buy food at the market or work. As a consequence, Hoi An’s tourism and agricultural industries shut down and electrical and power generation come to a halt. Furthermore, typhoons destroy crops, buildings, homes, schools, bridges, and infrastructure, and frequently endanger people’s lives. Saline intrusion is also a concern and has steadily been increasing, particularly during the summer dry season, when the river flow is low. This saltwater intrusion is found in shallow groundwater and in open wells, especially those from areas near the river mouth and along the coast. Hoi An has already had to move its drinking water supply station further inland twice in the last ten years (see Hoi An Biosphere Reserve Map, Figure 2) because of saline intrusion. Climate change projections indicate that by 2020 up to 2,700 hectares (ha) of the land area will be affected by saline intrusion if no preventive action is taken. This is 50% of the entire city area. Lastly, coastal and riverbank erosion is a serious hazard threatening Hoi An. Since 2009 the city has lost 8 kilometers (km) of beach coastline to erosion resulting from storm waves hitting deforested coastal areas that were once protected by mangrove forests. Additionally, erosion along the Hoi An riverbanks causes the loss of valuable arable soil and threatens homes located along the river.

In the face of such challenges, Hoi An’s work on the marine protected area, as well as the biosphere reserve concept have laid the foundation for its resilience-building work. The Cham Islands Marine Protected Area (MPA) was created for conservation of marine resources and biodiversity, as well as local livelihood improvement. There are about 2,500 people living on the Cham Islands. More than 80% of the islands’ population is reliant on fishing and other marine resources, which include coral, fish, lobster, squid, abalone and sea cucumber. According to recent research conducted by the Nha Trang Institute of Oceanography, the Cham Islands host 277 coral species, 270 reef fish species, 76 seaweed species, 5 sea grass species, 4 lobster species, 97 mollusks, and 11 species of echinoderms (Long, 2008). In addition to the natural beauty, the Cham Islands have an abundance of traditional/local knowledge and customs, archaeological heritage, forest resources and medicinal plant resources (Tuan, et al., 2004, Minh, 2005).

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Figure 1: The Quang Nam Province Thu Bon river where Hoi An city is located downstream and the Cham Islands on the coastal straight from the river estuary. (Photo: Bui Kien Quoc).

Cham Islands MPA was established under a decision of Provincial People’s Committee of Quang Nam (Province) on 20 December 2005. The Cham Islands MPA project was implemented from October 2003 to September 2006, with the long-term objectives of (i) protecting natural resources and cultural and historical values of Cham archipelago, and (ii) using sustainable natural resources as well as cultural and historical values of Cham Islands to stimulate socio-economic development (Trinh, 2006). In 2009, Hoi An was recognized by UNESCO as a World Biosphere Reserve, because of the city’s unique relationship with the estuary, and its reliance on local mangrove, sea grass, and coral reef habitats. People in this area have always lived in harmony with nature and implemented sustainable livelihood practices. In order to hold the UNESCO World Biosphere Reserve certificate, Hoi An city had to adopt its criteria which included requirements on ecological and biodiversity conservation together with environmental friendly economic development (Trinh, 2013).

 

Figure 2: Hoi An Biosphere Reserve Map (Trinh, 2013)

The Hoi An Biosphere Reserve Map clearly shows the borders of the Hoi An Old Town, the Hoi An Biosphere Reserve, together with the Marine Protected Area as the core zone inside. The flooded river flows and upstream hydropower reservoir water discharge gradually impact the downstream area, especially the Hoi An Old Town, while typhoons occur from the ocean during rainy season. On the contrary, saltwater intrusion severly affects during dry season. Moreover,sediment river flows, river bank and beach erosion are found more often here in Hoi An.

2. METHODOLOGY

The research focuses on the process of establishment and management of the Cham Islands MPA and Biosphere Reserve. It is based on systematic analysis of qualitative and quantitative data from research activities, which have been conducted since 2003 until 2013. Research data include both primary source information collected by experimental activities, observations, participation, and questionnaire and in depth interview and secondary reviews from reports, scientific articles, statistical yearbooks, monitoring database, and previous studies. In particular, some research tools, which are applicable to local circumstances have been used. DPSIR (Driving forces, Pressures, State of the environment, Impacts, Responses) logical framework (Bach, 2002) was used for gathering information amongst community workshops participants. The workshops focused on discuss issues on natural resources and environment protection as well as social economic development in the Cham Islands MPA and Biosphere Reserve, including of course causes and possible solutions. Simultaneously, SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threats) matrix was also applied for analyzing Cham Islands communities’ strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges related to marine resources and environment conservation and management (Trinh, 2008a).

3. RESULTS

Overall, the establishment of Cham Islands Marine Protected Area and Biosphere Reserve aim to build long-term resilience in the face of climate change and extreme weather events. The protection and sustainable management of natural resources increases the capacity of the environment to cope with natural hazards and also decreases human vulnerability (Trinh, 2013). Indeed, healthy ecosystems easily meet people needs for food and water, and protect them from hazards, through flood regulation and coastal protection against storms and erosion (Trinh, 2011a). The logical framework and priority actions for the Hoi An city resilient building work are described in Table 1.

Table 1: The Hoi An city resilient building work

Goal

Thematic issues

Priority solutions

Climate change mitigation and disaster risk reduction

MPA establishment and management

Zoning plan development

Establishment of regulatory mechanism

MPA Co-management plan development

Monitoring and enforcement program

Biosphere Reserve criteria adoption 

Community based livelihood development and impact assessment

Community based ecotourism homestay program

Community participation in recovery and sustainable exploitation of Cham Islands land crabs (Gecarcoidea lalandii)

Mangrove forests recovery

3.1 MPA ESTABLISHMENT AND MANAGEMENT

Zoning plan development

The Cham Islands MPA of 235 km2 is divided into different zones, which respectively prioritize strictly protected (1.26 km2), ecological restoration (2.25 km2), controlled tourism development (1.39 km2), community development (1.39 km2), protected forestry (15.5 km2), reasonable fishing (94.58 km2), and buffer (120.02 km2) zones (Trinh, 2006). Each zone has its own characteristics and is managed according to different requirements to meet the needs of the ecosystem health and the local community benefits. (Figure 3).

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Figure 3: The Cham Islands Marine Protected Area (Trinh, 2006).

Establishment of regulatory mechanism

The MPA management regulations demonstrate the commitment of local people to protect and use natural resources in a way that ensures preservation for future residents. The regulations were discussed and proposed by the local community, for review and approval by the state agencies. The approved regulations document is the legal platform to protect natural resources in the community. Their enforcement is the responsibility of the entire community. (Trinh, 2006).

MPA Co-management plan development

The MPA management plan was developed using the co-management model, which promotes the participation of the state and of the local community (Trinh, 2008a). The MPA Co-management plan approach is based on six target resources, which are coral reefs, sea grass beds, beaches, lobsters, land crabs, and limpets. Based on analysis of the status of these six target resources, a series of solutions was developed to ensure their protection. A five year financial plan was proposed to support these activities, which were funded through state budgets, entrance visiting fees, technical and monetary NGO supports, and local community implementation role (Trinh, 2008b).

Monitoring and enforcement program

The co-management approach has required fishing activities to be changed to follow the ecological aspect, which has proven effective in seasonal, zone, fishing gear, and size regulation for fish caught. (Figure 4).

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Figure 4: Trend in fish catch in years (Trinh, 2008a)

Average fish catch was increasing annually from 1999 until 2004 with an average of 1,467 tonnes per year. However, the total fish catch was reduced gradually from 2004 to 2013 to an average yield of 865 tonnes per year, corresponding to the time when the Cham Islands MPA applied the fishing regulations. The Cham total fish catch and fish catch composition have changed gradually since the Cham Islands MPA was established up today. During the period from 1998 to 2004, fish catch revenue is recorded in increasing steadily from 10 billion dong to 21 billion dong per year. However, for the time over the period 2005 to 2013, the Cham Islands fishing grounds have been controlled through conservation, so that the fish catch and revenue dropped significantly to 8 billion dong in 2015, and has since been increasing gradually to15 billion dong per year (Trinh, 2013).

The Cham Islands MPA is also a core zone of the Hoi An Biosphere Reserve, which is a very important role for resilience of the communities and their recovery after a disaster, through ecosystem services and goods, and livelihood diversification, as well as for awareness-raising about the role of nature for human well-being, especially in the face of climate change.

The establishment of Cham Islands MPA has contributed to expanding the protection area of fisheries resources of Quang Nam Province. As of 2013, the total Quang Nam Province coastal area is around 3,000 km2, in which there are 552 km2 reserved for protection, accounting for 17% of total coastal area (Trinh, 2014). This protected area percentage was relatively high compared with the expected rate (30%). In the future, if the MPA models are replicated to six coastal districts/cities in Quang Nam Province, the conservation and protection of coastal resources will be expanded further and will be good for sustainable fisheries development. We hope also to expand the MPA/Biosphere Reserve model to the entire river basin.

3.2 BIOSPHERE RESERVE CRITERIA ADOPTION

Community based livelihood development and impact assessment

People in these local communities depend heavily on natural and environmental resources to meet their basic needs. Policies to preserve the local environment are more successful when people have a stake in the protection and use of natural resources, and receive benefits in return (Brown & Trinh, 2008). Activities in the Cham Islands sought to identify, build and develop alternative livelihoods such as home stays, local tour guide services, fish sauce, drying fish, forest tea product processing (Trinh, 2010).

Community based ecotourism homestay program

The community-based ecotourism home stay program has provided job opportunities and improved life standards for local people. The number of tourists that visit Cham Islands has increased dramatically since it was named a Biosphere Reserve site. In 2008, it welcomed 16,000 visitors, while in 2013 a record-setting 195,000 people visited the Islands (Figure 5) (Trinh, 2013). Increased tourism has contributed to local economic development. The community-based ecotourism home stay program is a model suitable for the Cham Islands MPA because it allows promoting socio-economic development, and providing opportunities for local income generation. This program ensures that local people reap the benefits of tourism directly, instead of outside tour operators.

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Figure 5: Trend in number of tourists in years (Trinh, 2013)

Community participation in sustainable exploitation of Cham Islands land crabs

The land crab (Gecarcoidea lalandii) is one of the important marine resources that has historically contributed to the livelihoods of local people (Damholt, 2006). Nowadays, land crab has become a popular tourist product, and as a result it is facing a high risk of becoming overexploited (Anh & Hieu, 2011). To conserve and ensure sustainable exploitation of this resource, Cham Islands communities proposed a common guideline, which supports local people to form a land crab group that issued and approved regulations governing the use of this resource (Figure 6). This has allowed local people to buy-in to a conservation ethic, which has in fact increased the price of land crabs and their income (Damholt, 2006). To ensure participants are in compliance with the agreement, the collected land crabs must be labeled before they can be sold to customers (Trinh, 2010a), (Figure 7). In 2013, the total number of land crabs collected was 7,500, representing 25% of the amount that was collected previously. Thus, the measure allows conserving 75% of the land crab population, in comparison to previous years (Thao & Trinh, 2013) (Figure 8).

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Figure 6: Local participants determining if the land crab carapace meets regulation. An ecological label will be pasted on all qualified land crabs (Gecarcoidea lalandii). (Photo: Chu Manh Trinh)

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Figure 7: Land crabs (Gecarcoidea lalandii) that have been harvested and gone through labeling process that are ready for sale. (Photo: Chu Manh Trinh)

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Figure 8: Trend in land crabs (Gecarcoidea lalandii) harvested versus permitted catch limit (Trinh, 2013).

Mangrove forests recovery

As a first step to protect against coastal and riverbank erosion, Hoi An has developed some mangrove reforestation projects at the mouth of the river and along the banks of the river (Figure 9). The mangrove forestsof Nypa Palm (Nypa fruticans Wurmb) have been replanted gradually for the last 14 years from 2000 until now. More than 39 ha of Nypa Palm were recovered by local people and projects which are supported by the Hoi An city and NGOs activities (Table 2) (Trinh, 2014).

Table 2: Trend in Nypa Palm area (Trinh, 2014).

Year

1990

1994

1996

1998

2000

2002

2006

2008

2010

2012

Area (ha)

150

99,86

92,04

91,97

54,40

54,89

57,68

58,02

84,69

89,54

 Mangrove forests, particularly Nypa Palm (Nypa fruticans Wurmb), Tall-stilt Mangrove (Rhizophora apiculata Bl), Black Mangrove (Bruguiera gymorrhiza (L.) Lamk), Golden Leather Fern (Acrostichum aureum L.) are expected to act as buffers against floods, high tides and extreme climatic events such as storms, typhoons and tsunamis (Dai, 2006). In addition, Hoi An has also built several small dikes and sea walls with the intent to combine green and grey infrastructures for disaster prevention.

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Figure 9: Hoi An Nypa Palm (Nypa fruticans Wurmb) forests along the river estuary (Photo: Chu Manh Trinh)

By adopting the Biosphere Reserve criteria, Hoi An has increased and strengthened the concern and capacity on environmental and natural resources management at an ecosystem level, from inland to coastal areas and the whole river estuary. Alternative environmental friendly livelihoods based on home stay, labeled land crabs, and replanted mangrove forests have gradually not only improved local people’s quality of life but also contributed to building resilience of the city in the function of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation (Trinh, 2013, 2014).

In the past ten years, the number of visitors to Hoi An has grown from several hundred thousand tourists in 2004 to more than one million in 2009, around 1.5 millions in 2012 and at 1.6 millions in 2013. Twelve new kinds of livelihoods have been created by the increased tourism, which has increased local island residents’ annual income from 12 million dong ($600USD) in 2005 to 24 million dong ($1200USD) in 2013. The improved income and living standards resulting from ecotourism have encouraged local residents to participate in the island’s natural resource protection (Trinh, 2014).

4. DISCUSSION

The establishment of Cham Islands Marine Protected Area, as well as the Biosphere Reserve constitutes efforts for resilience building, in order to become an eco-city by 2030. The Marine Protected Area allows Hoi An to regulate fishing activities and pollution to protect species and marine resources. The Biosphere Reserve has supported the development of eco-tourism models to diversify local income sources, proving that environmental protection can also be compatible with economic growth.

The total area of coral reefs around the Cham Islands is 311.2 ha. Most of coral reefs are widely distributed in the shallow waters of islands and 6 ha of submerged rocky reefs were found in the deep waters (25 – 40m), so the Cham Islands MPA can play a very important role for reduction of slow onset hazards such as erosion, sea level rise, saline intrusion, as well acts as a buffer against natural hazards of storms, typhoons, and floods. The MPA establishment and management contributed to improving stakeholder and local community awareness raising. This allowed them to understand the ecological values of the marine resource and appreciate how to use such resources in a sustainable way. By adopting the MPA regulations and developing alternative livelihoods, local people’s income and livelihood have been improved gradually, allowing them to cope with and quickly recover from extreme events such as floods and typhoons (Trinh, 2012, 2011b). Healthy coral reefs and coastal ecosystems also act as a barrier against storm surges and allow to slowing down erosion of the coast, making Hoi An city less vulnerable to those threats (Trinh, 2011a). By supporting sustainable development, human well-being and human security, the MPA is an effective solution for disaster risk management (Trinh, 2010b), economic development, and long term climate change adaptation in the Cham Islands.

However, it is also for the long-term period, the Cham Islands marine ecological system health would be strongly dependent on the quality of sea water, which will be influenced by sediment concentration, as well as fresh water from the Vu Gia – Thu Bon river. Therefore, the longer Cham Islands MPA management plan should not be limited only to the MPA site, but must be expanded into coastal areas, where the integrated coastal zone management (ICM) concept is needed (Trinh, 2009). Moreover, yet Hoi An’s resilience depends on the health of the entire Vu Gia-Thu Bon River basin. In the future, It is very important to establish a Vu Gia-Thu Bon River Basin Organization to serve as a space for upstream and downstream stakeholders to meet, dialogue, and negotiate integrated basin management strategies (Thang & Trinh, 2013). Potential issues to address collaboratively include; coordinated planning and regulation to the entire river basin, to manage deforestation, dam releases, agricultural practices, fishing, and riverbank and coastal development.

5. CONCLUSIONS

Through the process of the Cham Islands Marine Protected Area establishment and management, as well as biosphere reserve criteria adoption in Hoi An City, Quang Nam Province, there have been many lessons learned on building a resilience model for mitigating climate change and reducing disasters risk. All the actions identified aim to improving human livelihood and security, in a context of high vulnerability to disaster risks. Protecting ecosystems, sharing natural resources and diversifying livelihoods are key to strengthen resilience of Cham Islands communities in the face of climate change. Resilient ecosystems not only increase societal resilience, but a process of healthy ecosystem management and development planning that fundamentally involves interested and affected populations enhances better governance and coping strategies for climate change and recurrent disasters. The shared responsibilities and interests of the state, community, and stakeholders have been identified, in order to ensure the model is successful. Further, the methods, tools and techniques involving communities to achieve consensus have been determined and tested. Marine resource management in the Cham Islands, not only includes power-sharing between the government and people, but also the sharing of responsibilities and interests to preserve natural resources. The Cham Islands MPA has supported community participation and alternative livelihoods development locally. By using the co-management method, the Cham Islands MPA communities have been able to apply the ecological approach to environmental and natural resources management. The communities’ daily consensus on functional zone planning, regulations building, MPA management plan as well as the government approval has been shown. The Cham Islands MPA has helped to support local people in diversifying alternative livelihoods, in reduction of natural resource exploitation, while ensuring life standard and income improvement.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This work is dedicated to my loving Cham Islands people, who gave me a lot of helps for my research since the Cham Islands MPA was started in 2003. I would like to express my deep gratitude to all my colleagues, who work for the Cham Islands Marine Protected Area for their full support with the ideas, shared data, and implementation of my study. I would like to express my deep gratitude to Dr. Donald Macintosh, who was a Chief Advisor for the Cham Islands MPA project during the period 2003-2006 for his devoted guidance and valuable advice for my research. My sincere thanks are also to Camille Buyck for her helpful comments, without which this work would be hardly perfect.

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Chu Mạnh Trinh – Khu Bảo tồn biển Cù Lao Chàm

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